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Three-year-olds quickly absorb social norms. They even understand behaviors as rule-governed that are not subject to any norms, and insist that others adhere to these self-inferred "norms," a new study reveals.

Researchers have shown that when parts of a genome known as enhancers are missing, the heart works abnormally, a finding that bolsters the importance of DNA segments once considered "junk" because they do not code for specific proteins.

More than 160,000 children were disciplined using corporal punishment in public schools in the United States in the 2013-2014 school year, according to data recently released by the U.S. Department of Education. School corporal punishment, which typically involves striking a child with a wooden…

A team of researchers has, for the first time, successfully mapped patterns of prostate cancer recurrence, following surgery. Using C-11 choline PET imaging and multiparametric MRI, researchers found an anatomically diverse pattern of recurrence, which may help optimize treatment of patients whose…

A protein that may safeguard neurons from the ravages of Parkinson's disease has been identified by a team of scientists. Parkinson's disease is a progressive disorder that takes years to develop. A better understanding of Prokineticin-2 could turn up a means of slowing development of the disease…

Traditionally cabin crew rely on sleep strategies (sleeping in a dark room, avoiding caffeine before bedtime etc) to alleviate jetlag, but these do not reset body clocks. New research suggests that long-haul cabin crew can ease symptoms of jetlag by regulating meal times on their days off.

Scientists have discovered a new way to look for aging cells across a wide range of biological materials. The new method will boost understanding of cellular development and aging as well as the causes of diverse diseases.

Researchers have studied which brain processes consolidate memories during sleep. They found clear parallels to findings from experimental animal studies.

Many serious diseases such as malaria or AIDS present a major challenge for medicine because the causative pathogens use the same strategy although they are completely different: by camouflaging themselves they evade the immune system.

Cancer cells have a different DNA methylation pattern from that of healthy cells. These patterns can be used to explain tumor-specific deviations in gene expression and to identify biomarkers for the detection of tumors, as well as associated prognosis and treatment planning. This is all possible…

Using an unbiased screen in yeast, a team of scientists have identified dozens of prion-like proteins that could change the defining characteristics of these unusual proteins.

When the local water management agency closes your favorite beach due to unhealthy water quality, how reliable are the tests they base their decisions on? As it turns out, those tests, as well as the standards behind them, have not been updated in decades. Now scientists have developed a highly…

When a 2013 study published in Science concluded that reading literary fiction for as few as 20 minutes could improve someone's social abilities, it made quite the splash. However, when researchers tried to replicate the findings using the original study materials and methodology, the results…

Researchers have used time diary data to find that mothers are less happy than fathers with their parenting duties. Mothers report more stress and greater fatigue than fathers. This experience gap is attributed to the differing tasks of each parent.

Mothers reunited with their children after care proceedings in the Family Drug and Alcohol Court (FDAC) are more likely to stay off drugs and alcohol for longer and their family life less likely to be disrupted when compared with cases heard in ordinary care proceedings, a study shows.

If a workout feels like more pain than gain, here's some motivation: Exercise releases a hormone that helps the body shed fat and keeps it from forming.

Lead exposure among preschoolers can predict low reading scores in subsequent years, a new study using data from Rhode Island's lead-abatement program and repeated blood lead level tests has found.

Researchers have found clues to the causes of age-related hearing loss. The ability to track and understand speech in both quiet and noisy environments deteriorates due in part to speech processing declines in both the midbrain and cortex in older adults.

Scientists have discovered a new pathway in the brain that can be manipulated to alleviate depression. The pathway offers a promising new target for developing a drug that could be effective in individuals for whom other antidepressants have failed.

Regular users of cannabis are less aware of their own mistakes, and they are not good at creative thinking, concludes new research on the effects of cannabis.

The secrets to staying young may lie in the DNA of the oldest among us.

I am delighted that Yoshinori Ohsumi won this year's Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. His pioneering work in yeast led to the discovery of genes and biological processes that are needed for autophagy. Autophagy (from the Greek for "self-eating") is the mechanism by which cells break down and…

A new article highlights the differences between older and younger adults living with HIV, and offers age-specific strategies on how to provide care. Older individuals differ from younger patients with HIV in many ways -- for example, they tend to have an increased risk for late or missed…

The effects of acute sleep deprivation in children has been the focus of new study for the first time. They discovered that the brain in five to 12-year-olds responds differently to sleep deprivation compared to adults: The reduced amount of sleep leads to an increased need for deep sleep in…

Some HIV-infected – and untreated – children do not develop AIDS. A new study shows that they control the virus in a different way from the few infected adults who remain disease-free, and sheds light on the reasons for this difference.

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